History of Landscape Architecture
This chart captures the evolution of the relationship between voids in the landscape, such as sunken gardens and pools, and voids in the building volume, such as peristyle gardens, atriums, and courtyards through four projects ranging from Roman Antiquity through Italian Renaissance to an early 20th Century Arts and Crafts building.
The illustrations show the increasing autonomy of landscape voids as they move out from the building volume, emphasizing the connection between building and landscape. There is a progression from Pompeian introverted buildings, where the peristyle garden is surrounded by the building, to a Renaissance Villa, where sunken gardens are released from the building while still maintaining an inward focus, to a complete detachment of sunken gardens and pools (that echo the building’s form) in a 20th Century mansion, extending defined, architectural space into the landscape.
The relationships of landscape voids and building voids are analyzed in four different categories. A Figure-ground drawing shows the building and landscape elements and their relationship to each other. The Void drawing shows the relative position of the two types of voids (superimposed or detached). A Circulation diagram shows the entry sequence of each building and what type of motion the landscape voids imply (linear or circumferential). Finally, the Axes diagram shows the main axes along which both types of voids are laid out and shows what kind of visual connection the voids allow for.